Please answer the Engineering questions
please answer the Engineering questions .
Part 1 Key Engineering Terms: fill in the blanks – 30 points
1. Phase: a __________________ homogeneous and distinct portion of material system.
2. Degrees of freedom: number of variables that can be changed ________ without changing phases of the system.
3. Eutectoid: a steel with __________percent C.
4. Austenite has _____________crystal structure and maximum carbon solubility of 2%.
5. Martensite: a _____________________ interstitial solid solution of carbon in ______________iron.
6. Tempering: the process of ___________________ a quenched steel to increase its toughness and ductility.
7. Spherodite: a mixture of particles of ________________in α iron matrix.
8. Hardenability: the ease of forming _____________in a steel upon quenching from austenitic condition.
9. White cast irons: contains large amounts of _________________which make them hard and brittle.
10. Gray cast iron: contain large amount of ______________________flakes.
11. Ductile cast iron: contain large amount of carbon in form of ________________________.
12. Malleable cast iron: _______________is added to composition other than iron and carbon.
13. Intermetallics: ____________ compounds of metallic elements with high hardness and high temperature strength but brittle.
14. Shape memory alloys: metal alloys that recover previously defined shape when subjected to an appropriate ________________.
15. Amorphous metal: metals with a ______________ structure also called glassy metal.
16. Octahedral interstitial site: has coordination umber of ____________________________.
17. Tetrahedral site: has coordination number of _______________________________.
18. Ceramic materials: _____________nonmetallic materials that consist of metallic and nonmetallic elements bonded together by ionic or covalent bonds.
19. Buckyball: is a soccer shaped molecule of ______________ carbon atoms.
20. Firing: heating a ceramic material to high temperature to cause ______________to form between particles.
21. Dry pressing: _____________ uniaxial compaction and shaping of ceramic granular particles in a die.
22. Isostatic pressing: the simultaneous compaction and shaping of a ceramic powder by pressure applied ______________ in all directions.
23. Sintering: the process in which fine particles of ceramic material become chemically bonded together at high temperature for _______________________ to occur between particles.
24. Vitrification: melting or formation of _______________________________________.
25. Refractory material: that can withstand the action of ____________________ environment.
26. Glass: a ceramic material made of _______________________________________ materials.
27. Glass transition temperature: a center of temperature range in which a ___________________ solid changes from being glass brittle to being _________________________________________.
28. Porcelain enamel: a glass coating applied to _____________________________________ substrate.
Part 2 (Learning concepts/reflections/problems) – 50 points
1. List the 2 material properties and 2 relevant application for following alloying elements in aluminum:
d. Silicon + Copper
2. (a) Describe the 5 steps in the slip-casting process for ceramic products.
(b) What is tempered glass? How is it produced? Why is tempered glass considerably stronger in tension than annealed glass? What are some applications for tempered glass?
3. Identify the following phase diagram. Identify the 3 stages of age/precipitation hardening as shown in the figure below and explain the various phases and their features/properties/microstructure at these stages.
4. For the following types of ceramic materials explain material properties and one relevant application for each.
d. silicon carbide
e. boron nitride
5. (a) Sketch the microstructure of pearlite, bainite and spherodite and explain key features.
Part 3 Materials Design Problems – 20 points
1. (a) Discuss the advantages and disadvantages of using advanced ceramics in the structure of internal combustion engines.
(b) Propose some methods of overcoming the shortcomings of ceramics for this application.
2. Identify 2 properties and 2 relevant applications of following materials:
(1) Brass (2) Bronze
Bonus – 10 points
1. What are glass intermediate oxides? How do they affect the silica-glass network? Why are they added to silica glass?
2. Explain, from an atomic structure point of view, why metals can be plastically deformed to form large and complex shapes while complex ceramic parts cannot be manufactured by this technique.
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