Classmates replies on social process theories

Classmates replies on social process theories

201 Discussion 5 post with 2 classmates replies on social process theories
You are required to prepare and submit an original post by 11:59 PM on the assigned day and respond to any questions posed to you by the instructor or other members of the class.  Original posts should be at least 3 or 4 paragraphs in length.  Any information in your posts must be properly cited (APA), if necessary, and proper grammar and punctuation must be used.  Remember, this is not an opinion forum. Your answers should be based on fact and the source of your factual information should be noted.   Information on APA formatting and paraphrasing articles can be found under “Course Materials.”


Chapter 8 introduces and discusses social process theories.  As a child, you may have been unaware that your parents subscribed to these theories.  Remember when you were told not to hang out with Sarah because you were starting to act just like her?  That is Sutherland’s differential association theory.  Differential association says that a person learns to be deviant (criminal) through associating with others.  So if you are around Sarah when she back-talks her mom, or picks on her little brother, or commits a criminal act such as shoplifting, then you will learn to accept these behaviors and engage in them yourself.  The key is that one learns to be deviant based on observation and association with others.  The theory has nine basic principles which are found on pages 186-187 of your text.

Another of these theories that your parents may have used or you may have experienced yourself is labeling theory.  In this theory, a person is “tagged” as negative.  Your parents probably told you not to hang out with Shaun because he was a “juvenile delinquent.”  Whether or not Shaun actually broke any laws, all the parents and most of the kids in the neighborhood believed he was a delinquent.  It doesn’t really matter if the label is true or not.  Because of his “tag,” Shaun will have limited contacts, and his opportunities may be restricted.  Consequently, Shaun may resort to associating with actual criminals, and may become deviant.  The negative image projected by the community creates a negative self-image, which may lead to Shaun a self-fulfilling prophecy.  He’s been labeled as deviant, so he will begin to commit deviant acts.

You have probably seen labeling occur in schools, too.  Remember when you were put into certain groups for reading or math?  The teacher had you labeled and you may or may not have known it.  We all know the negative connotations of riding a particular style of school bus.  Labeling is all around us and it can have a profound effect on our lives.  A teacher once told my daughter that she wasn’t a good test-taker.  So guess what happened from then on?  My daughter no longer studied for tests because “it won’t matter anyway because I’m not good at taking tests.”

In the criminal justice system, people found guilty of an act are labeled “criminals.”  But, do they necessarily have to be found guilty to get that label from the public?  Do you think that Darren Wilson, the officer who shot Michael Brown in Ferguson, MO, will ever work in law enforcement again?  He wasn’t convicted of any wrongdoing after reviews/inquiries/investigations at all levels of law enforcement, yet he was forced to resign his position and has had death threats issued against him.  There are hundreds, probably thousands, of similar examples of the labeling theory in criminal justice.

The labeling theory and tagging are discussed in detail starting on page194.  Notice that Virginia is specifically mentioned as being one of the four states where ex-offenders have most difficulty becoming productive citizens after certain convictions.

Think of an example in your life where you have experienced the effects of either differential association or labeling.  It can be an example where you were the “victim” or the “perpetrator.”  How much time did you spend with the person that taught you to be deviant (that just means not conforming to societal norms), did you realize that you were learning deviant behavior, etc?  If you were labeled or placed a label on someone else, how did it come about and was it true?  Provide as many details as necessary to prove it to fall under one of these theories.  Also, using the principles of the theory, explain how it conforms to the theory.  What were the short and long-term effects?

Answer preview for Classmates replies on social process theories

Classmates replies on social process theories

Access the full answer containing 760 words by clicking the below purchase button.